The opportunity to double your bet in return for agreeing to accept only one more card is a very powerful option for the player, if it's utilized correctly. I can't tell you how often I see players double hands like 7 or 8 against a dealer's up card of 6 and then bemoan their fate when they lose. Yes, the dealer is very vulnerable with a 6 showing, but placing an extra bet changes the mathematics of the hand, so all doubles must be well-considered. For example, in a six-deck game where the dealer stands on A-6, doubling a hand of 8 against the dealer's 6 has a total return of 10.3% whereas just hitting the hand returns 12.3% and the risk is lower!
That said, there comes a time when it is worthwhile to double an 8 against a dealer's 6 and that's when there's a higher proportion than normal of 10s left in the deck. That point is determined, of course, by the true count. As the true count gets more positive, it becomes more profitable to double. Conversely, as the count goes negative, it becomes a better play to hit some hands, rather than double.
Just as you're using flashcards to learn the hit/stand variations, make up, a set for doubling. Here are the numbers you need